Monday, August 24, 2020


Effect OF FEEDBACK ON JOB PERFORMANCE AND JOB SATISFACTION - Essay Example Be that as it may, if salary increases are connected straightforwardly to execution, a worker who gets a solid boost in compensation will more than likely additionally experience sentiments of achievement and fulfillment. Then again, criticism is the data individuals get about their presentation. It passes on an assessment about the nature of their exhibition practices. Giving input should be possible by giving data to representatives with respect to their presentation on work desires. This makes input is a significant piece of the training procedure. For example, in the school condition, test grades let understudies recognize what they have accomplished and what they should figure out how to improve next time. Individuals at work offer criticism to strengthen others' acceptable conduct and right their poor conduct. The beneficiary of input makes a decision about its worth and decides if to acknowledge and follow up on the criticism, dismiss it, or overlook it. Input has various purposes at various vocation stages. It assists newcomers with learning the ropes, mid-vocation representatives to improve execution and think about open doors for advancement, and late profession workers to keep up their prof itability. Supervisors are a significant wellspring of input since they set up execution destinations and give awards to achieving those goals. Different wellsprings of input are colleagues, subordinates, and clients (London, 2003, p. 11). The effect of criticism on work fulfillment could be inferred in the way that it is connected to the mental gathering of a representative. Cullen and Sackett (2003) refered to Hackman and Oldham's activity attributes model that has distinguished the five center undertaking measurements task personality, task assortment, self-sufficiency, task centrality, and criticism are found in various mental states, for example, work fulfillment and ensuing authoritative occasions (like nonattendance and turnover). Research has surely settled that these properties are helpful indicators of employment fulfillment (Cullen and Sackett, 2003, p. 169). The issue with criticism is that, for the most part, individuals will in general see and review positive input more precisely than they do negative criticism. Be that as it may, instead of what numerous individuals think, a criticism with a negative sign (e.g., being told your exhibition is underneath normal) can have a positive inspirational effect. Indeed, when representatives are told they were beneath normal on an inventiveness test, they accordingly headed to beat the individuals who were persuaded their outcomes were better than expected. This is the reason negative criticisms can fill in as a test and could propel workers to seek after more significant standards. Those accepting positive criticism evidently were less roused to improve. In any case, criticism with a negative sign or undermining content should be regulated cautiously to abstain from making instability and preventiveness. Self-viability additionally can be harmed by negative criticism, as found in a couple of tes ts with business understudies. With this, Louie (1999) inferred that to encourage the improvement of solid viability convictions, chiefs ought to be cautious about the arrangement of negative input. Dangerous analysis by supervisors which traits the reason for terrible showing to interior components diminishes both the convictions of self-adequacy and oneself set objectives of beneficiaries. The conventional top-down criticism programs have now been supplanted by two more current methodologies, the upward

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Alexander Nevsky - Prince of Novgorod and Kiev

Alexander Nevsky - Prince of Novgorod and Kiev The child of a significant Russian pioneer, Alexander Nevsky was chosen sovereign of Novgorod on his own benefits. He prevailing with regards to driving attacking Swedes from Russian region and fighting off the Teutonic Knights. Be that as it may, he consented to pay tribute to the Mongols instead of battle them, a choice for which he has been criticized. Eventually, he became Grand Prince and attempted to reestablish Russian success and build up Russian sway. After his demise, Russia broke down into primitive territories. Otherwise called Ruler of Novgorod and Kiev; Grand Prince of Vladimir; likewise spelled Aleksandr Nevski and, in Cyrillic, Ð Ã° »Ã° µÃ° ºÃ± Ã° °Ã° ½Ã°'ñ€ Ð Ã° µÃ° ²Ã± Ã° ºÃ° ¸Ã° ¹ Alexander Nevsky was noted for Halting the development of the Swedes and the Teutonic Knights into Russia Occupations Roles in Society Military LeaderPrinceSaint Spots of Residence and Influence Russia Significant Dates Born:â c. 1220Victorious fighting on the ice: April 5, 1242Died: Nov. 14, 1263 Account Ruler of Novgorod and Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir, Alexander Nevsky is most popular for halting the development of the Swedes and the Teutonic Knights into Russia. Simultaneously, he paid tribute to the Mongols as opposed to endeavoring to fend them off, a place that has been assaulted as weak however which may have been only a question of understanding his cutoff points. The child of Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich, fabulous ruler of Vladimir and first Russian pioneer, Alexander was chosen sovereign of Novgorod (fundamentally a military post) in 1236. In 1239 he wedded Alexandra, the girl of the Prince of Polotsk. For quite a while the Novgorodians had moved into A finnish area, which was constrained by the Swedes. To rebuff them for this infringement and to bar Russias access to the ocean, the Swedes attacked Russia in 1240. Alexander scored a noteworthy triumph against them at the conversion of the Rivers Izhora and Neva, whereby he got his honorific, Nevsky. Be that as it may, a while later he was removed from Novgorod for meddling in city issues. Not long a while later, Pope Gregory IX started encouraging the Teutonic Knights to Christianize the Baltic district, despite the fact that there were Christians as of now there. Despite this danger, Alexander was welcome to come back to Novgorod and, after a few showdowns, he vanquished the knights in a celebrated fight on the solidified channel between Lakes Chud and Pskov in April 1242. Alexander in the long run halted the eastbound development of both the Swedes and Germans. Be that as it may, another significant issue won in the east. Mongol armed forces were vanquishing segments of Russia, which was not politically brought together. Alexanders father consented to serve the new Mongol rulers, however he passed on in September 1246. This left the seat of the Grand Prince empty, and both Alexander and his more youthful sibling Andrew spoke to Khan Batu of the Mongol Golden Horde. Batu sent them to the Great Khan, who disregarded Russian custom by choosing Andrew as Grand Prince, likely in light of the fact that Alexander was supported by Batu, who was undesirable with the Great Khan. Alexander made due with being made the ruler of Kiev. Andrew started to plan with other Russian rulers and western countries against the Mongol overlords. Alexander accepted the open door to impugn his sibling to Batus child Sartak. Sartak sent a military to remove Andrew, and Alexander was introduced as Grand Prince in his place. As Grand Prince, Alexander attempted to reestablish Russian flourishing by building fortresses and holy places and passing laws. He kept on controlling Novgorod through his child Vasily. This adjusted the convention of rule from one dependent on a procedure of greeting to institutional power. In 1255 Novgorod removed Vasily, and Alexander set up a military and got Vasily back on the seat. In 1257 an insubordination broke out in Novgorod because of an approaching statistics and tax collection. Alexander helped constrained the city to submit, likely expecting that the Mongols would rebuff all of Russia for Novgorods activities. More uprisings broke out in 1262 against the Muslim assessment ranchers of the Golden Horde, and Alexander prevailing with regards to turning away responses by traveling to Saray on the Volga and addressing the Khan there. He additionally got an exclusion for Russians from a draft. In transit home, Alexander Nevsky passed on in Gorodets. After his passing, Russia broke down into fighting realms however his child Daniel would found the place of Moscow, which would in the end rejoin northern Russian grounds. Alexander Nevsky was upheld by the Russian Orthodox Church, which made him a holy person in 1547.

Friday, July 17, 2020

Best Uses of Big Data in Marketing

Best Uses of Big Data in Marketing Of all of its applications, Big Datas potential and actual benefits are perhaps most readily seen in marketing. Marketing, as defined by the American Marketing Association, is defined as:“Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.”With this definition, it’s easy to see the linkages between marketing and Big Data. Information can yield product insights allowing you to create products people want. It helps you understand how to effectively communicate the value of those products. You can optimize your distribution (and production) strategies to deliver your product to your consumer, and you can determine the appropriate rate of exchange (price) to ensure a healthy profit. In sum, the more information you have the more informed marketing decisions you can make. © | zaozaa19Clearly, there is great potential between the concept and the process. But in practice, how is Big Data used? And how should it be best be used to create value and achieve a firm’s strategic marketing objectives?In this article, we will explore 1) the benefits of using Big Data in marketing; 2) marketing planning using Big Data; 3) Big Data and its impact on the four Ps; 4) Big Data and digital marketing; 5) ROI and assessment; 6) using Big Data to build and strengthen brand loyalty; 7) the future of Big Data in marketing; and 8) a marketing case study of a firm using Big Data.BENEFITS OF USING BIG DATA IN MARKETINGBig Datas benefits for marketers are numerous. Harnessing the information available from a far greater number of sources than ever before,  as a marketer you can:Create a more accurate profile of your target consumer(s);Predict consumer reaction to marketing messages and product offerings;Personalize those marketing messages and product offe rings;Optimize your production and distribution strategy;Create and use more accurate assessment measures;Perfect digital marketing and campaign-based strategies;Retain more customers less expensively; andObtain product insights, among other tactics.This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, but the marriage of Big Data and marketing certainly does enhance long-held marketing capabilities and give rise to an impressive set of new ones.Big Data, Big Opportunities for Marketing MARKETING PLANNING USING BIG DATAAssuming a marketer has the appropriate IT hardware/software infrastructure in place and personnel to manage it (whether in-house or outsourced), they will want to begin to work with the data analysts to explore the data itself. They will need to know what they should be gathering, and which tools they are going to use. These are critical questions to begin to handle the avalanche of data available. They also need to determine in which areas they will be gathering and linking d atasets in order to determine what questions they should be asking. They should start in areas that will give them a distinct competitive advantage, and actionable insights.The more insights incorporated in marketing plans, the more effective those plans are likely to be. Further, marketers can harness predictive analytics â€" a series of statistical techniques and modeling methods to forecast future occurrences using historical data. This can yield powerful insights about consumer preferences and probability of purchase. Predictive analytics is bug business. According to technology research firm IDC, the market for predictive analytics technology is projected to grow from $2.2 billion to $3.4 billion by 2018.They can also harness machine learning in the analyses of problems. Using smart computer software to handle some types of analyses saves time and money as computers can compute and model faster than humans can. Many firms, using proprietary algorithms, offer their services to m arketers/market research department.BIG DATA AND THE FOUR PsThe use of Big Data has implications for every aspect of marketing. Marketing is often described in terms of the four Ps: promotion, product, place, and price. Some marketers /marketing professors add a fifth P: packaging. Big Data can help hone marketers understanding of consumer preferences to design the kind of packaging that would attract consumers and more readily lead to a sale. But in terms of the more conventional definition, first, lets start with pricing.PricingBy incorporating various real-time datasets, including supplier and inventory data, models of consumer likelihood to purchase, and financial forecasts, firms can employ dynamic pricing allowing it to offer different prices at different times in different places to different consumers in order to optimize revenue. For example, hotel chains may offer one standard rate on their website on a particular day. They might also offer it as a part of package deals w ith strategic partners such as rental car companies or airlines. The hotel component of the price may be at a markup or a discount depending on the forecasted price. As the hotel begins to fill up, the hotels management can increase the price of the room, both as a standalone room, and as part of the package deal(s), as the room is both in demand and in short supply. If the demand plateaus shortly before the check-in time, hotel management can deeply discount it and offer it on discount hotel websites.Further, the firm can vary the pricing based on the consumer, or characteristics of the consumer. For example, an examination of data might yield that owners of a certain type for smartphone or those using a certain type of browser, are more likely to make hotel reservations independent of prices. The hotel can then increase the prices for those who access their site with said smartphone or browser. This is not a purely hypothetical example. Many hotels and hotel chains, such as Fairmo nt Raffles Hotels International, currently use dynamic pricing to optimize revenue. And hotels aren’t the only industry to adapt this strategy. Retailers, such as Amazon and Walmart, among others are well-known for doing so. Many well-known technology firms have incorporated dynamic pricing as well.ProductOne of Big Datas most common uses is to obtain product insights.  Firms can easily conduct qualitative and quantitative market research online at a much lower cost than two decades ago. Online survey tools and videoconferencing tools make focus groups and surveys with large sample sizes much easier to conduct as well. Firms can monitor the web and social media for mentions of their brand by consumers.  They can review the analytics for their own digital assets (website, microsite(s), blog, social media, and plenty of third-party signals to gain actionable insights. And they can also interpret that information to figure out ideal product extensions.PlacementMarketers can use Big D ata to determine the optimal channels to place their products. They can set up supply chains accordingly. In some cases, changes in placement are borne of necessity. Many newspapers, facing years of declining advertising and subscription revenue, have chosen to either go completely online and erect a paywall, or downscale print circulation and incorporate a free or paid online subscription model. Determining which option, and in the case of the latter, how to downscale (i.e. reduced subscription delivery dates, reduced retail distribution) can be determined in part by a careful analysis of Big Data. Possible variables might include areas in which subscriptions are declining; retail outlets where sales have either stagnated or declined any test of the effect of a paywall on existing subscribers, and more.PromotionBig Data can help consumers pinpoint the most likely targets to buy product, by allowing marketers to craft a more complete profile of their average customer. They can easil y test the marketing messages that work and adjust quickly midstream if they dont. In the hands of a capable marketing research firm or in-house marketing department, Big Data can be harnessed to test and predict likely consumer reaction to various marketing messages. For example, a firm sending out a bulk email to 250,000 consumers can use marketing data to create a psychographic profile of the average consumer, extrapolate their motivations, and write copy that speaks to them. They can test possible headlines with small sample sizes to see how many people opened each, and send out only those with high open rates. They can also use open rates and click through rates to qualify leads and move them further along the sales funnel.  They can then compare this to actual sales from these consumers, as well as social media mentions, in-person visits, and many other pieces of data.[cp_modal id=cp_id_75506] [/cp_modal]BIG DATA AND DIGITAL MARKETINGThe Internet is a major source of Big Data. Everything from website analytics to social media mentions to click-through ad rates can be easily aggregated, analyzed, and interpreted. It has also led to the creation of many new forms of online or digital marketing. A complete exploration of them is beyond the scope of this post, but they include (and are not limited to):Banner advertising: acquiring digital ad space on third-party websites that drives traffic to one of your digital assetsSearch engine marketing: using a combination of digital advertising, content marketing, SEO, and other strategies to increase a particular brands visibility in search engine rankingsContent marketing: brand, product, or search engine marketing through text, audio, photo, and   videoBrand storytelling: a form of digital marketing which emphasizes the brand promise through text, audio, photo, and video (e.g. photos of customers happily using the productSearch engi ne optimization: ensuring that your digital assets are properly coded to rank high in search engine resultsRetargeting advertising: cookie-based advertising strategy that displays a firms ads to its site visitors on third-party websitesSocial media marketing: brand or product marketing using social networks and social media toolsMobile advertising: advertising on mobile devices such as smartphones and tabletsNative advertising: advertising that appears similar to organic content on the website on which it appears (e.g. Facebook ads that appear like status updates)Digital marketing various sub-disciplines all collect and aggregate data which can be analyzed for patterns and insights. Further, these insights can be rapidly integrated into any digital marketing strategy. For example, an insight that the majority of online visitors to a firms digital assets are looking for a small set of content with common keywords, can lead digital marketers to develop new content with those keywords on all platforms. They can also look at that content in light of traditional marketing messages, product lines, and other existing strategies, and refine them accordingly.ROI AND ASSESSMENTDigital marketing has allowed marketers to quantify their efforts and quickly determine their success or failure. Big Data offers marketers more dimensions along which to assess that success of failure. For example, marketers looking to launch a brand awareness firm had little in the way of measurement two decades ago. Today, they can assess everything from social media mentions and likes to website visits and even sales. This is heartening for CEOs and executives who, pre-Internet often waded through murky metrics of success. Even MBA and undergraduate business programs are increasingly offering quantitative marketing programs which teach students to leverage insights from Big Data to refine and optimize marketing strategies.BUILDING BRAND LOYALTYBy collecting and aggregating so much information about consumers, marketers are now able to respond to individual consumers in a very personal fashion. By employing tactics that appeal to one’s fundamental motivations, preferences, experiences, and emotions, marketers can enable them to create a strong and lasting connection between customer and brand. For example, firms that aggregate customer service calls might take note that a customer who contacted a call enter has a kindergarten-age daughter, and might incorporate that in their marketing strategy directed at her. A follow up email from the associate with whom she spoke might acknowledge the conversation and suggest products that might suite her daughter; this could also be incorporated into the firm’s recommendation engine for her user profile.In order to deliver on the promise of personalized services, marketers need as much information as possible about consumers and customers. This is where Big Data comes in â€" providing targeted customers with information important to them.FUTURE OF BIG DATA IN MARKETINGIndustry pundits predict that Big Data will assume an ever-more central role in marketing as machine learning evolves and allows data scientists to analyze disparate data types ever quicker. Others predict deeper customization of product and personalization of services; others see the increasing rapidity with which marketing messages are developed becoming increasingly important revenue drivers. Ethics are, and will increase in, importance the more data is gathered. The more firms gather large datasets, the more government regulation will likely grow, especially in certain areas like privacy and security. However, many believe that while the tools are increasing in refinement and sophistication, the basic definition remains the same: “creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.” As one marketing expert, Bob Borchers, the chief marketing officer of Dolb y Laboratories, said in a recent interview with Fortune:“Big data really isn’t the end unto itself,” he said. “It’s actually big insights from big data. It’s throwing away 99.999% of that data to find things that are actionable.”Marketers have been chasing those insights since the pre-computer days. With Big Data, they have reams and reams of data with which to do it.Big Business: Unlocking Value from Big Data with Analytics CASE STUDY © Wikimedia Commons | NetflixOne of the most well-known examples of Big Data in marketing is Netflix. An upstart video rental company competing against the likes of then-market leader Blockbuster video, Netflix began as a mail-order DVD service in 1997. Its website featured a sophisticated recommendation engine, an algorithm-based program that predicts consumer video preferences based on their past choices and many other bits of customer data available from its subscribers. For Netflix, which also employed a flat price for unlimited DVDs, this meant creating a tremendous value for their consumers. Beyond being able to undercut Blockbuster for multiple movies, they were able to develop a deeply engaged and loyal customer base by analyzing their customer’s signals, continuously refining their algorithms and coming up with increasingly accurate predictions of what their customers would want to view next. Further, Netflix’s forays into original programming, starting in 2012, were do ne using considerable analysis of the data they had captured during their ten years in business. This included everything from viewer records to ratings to comments to meta tags. Today, Netflix counts more than 44 million paying members, and Blockbuster, which filed for bankruptcy in 2010, is a faint memory, with most retail locations closed and a brand name now only used for an on-demand cable channel.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Utopia in Gulliver Travels and Paradise Lost Essay

The Inconceivable Utopia in Gulliver Travels and Paradise Lost In Jonathon Swifts Gulliver Travels and in John Miltons Paradise Lost, the reader is presented with two lands representing utopias. For Swift this land is an island inhabited by horse like creatures called Houyhnhnms who rule over man like beasts called Yahoos. For Milton, the Garden of Eden before the Fall of man represents Paradise. In it, Adam and Eve are pure and innocent, untested and faithful to God. The American Heritage Dictionary defines utopia as an ideally perfect place, especially in its social, political, and moral aspects. And while Houyhnhnm Land and the Garden of Eden may seem like ideally perfect places, they are not. Indeed, they contradict our†¦show more content†¦The prospect of utopia, that is, an unchanging static society, has little appeal compared to the prospect of trying to reach such an exalted existence. And its this idea of progress that we often associate with the idea of utopia. Appealing as it may seem, an utopia is a double edged sword. It is both the end result of our desires and an end to those desires. Because ending our desire goes against our human nature, the notion of utopia can no longer exist to the human mind. Therefore, neither the Garden of Eden nor the island of the Houyhnhnms is an utopia because both societies are unchanging. In them, both progress and desire is forbidden. In Book IV of Gullivers Travels, Gullivers ship is mutinied and he is forced into exile to a strange island. On this island he first encounters a rare breed of animal. He describes them, Their heads and breasts were covered with a thick hair, some frizzled and others lank; they had beards like goats, and a long ridge of hair down their backs (2403). These creatures are Yahoos, an inferior species thats very human in nature and in physical form. Next Gulliver meets the Houyhnhmns, rational horses who rule over the human like Yahoos. These two types of creatures symbolize both extremes of human nature, that of reason and emotion. The Yahoos are described as detestable beings driven by passion and emotion while the Houyhnhmns are reveled by Gulliver because of theirShow MoreRelatedBritish Literature Essay1614 Words   |  7 Pagespilgrims who travel to Canterbury and they were saying stories each other, each one said four stories, but in tact there are only 23 tales. William Shakespeare – is the biggest author of this period Christopher Marlowe – might became another Shakespeare but he had been killed, lived only short life, he wrote many plays – â€Å"The Tragic History of Doctor Faustus†, â€Å"the Jew of Malta†, perhaps he also wrote Henry VI. – which Shakespeare revised and completed Sir Thomas More: he wrote â€Å"Utopia† – a vision

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Operational Motivation Plan Essay - 902 Words

Operational Motivation Plan This plan incorporates many aspects of motivation. It looks to some motivational theories described by Robbins as well as the opinions discussed in other articles. Robbins (2001) said that managers get things done through other people. They make decisions, allocate resources, and direct the activities of others to attain goals. Highlighting the positive elements will provide an excellent basis for management objectives, as well as the profile of the organization. The most difficult job that faces a supervisor is learning how to effectively motivate and keep his/her employees motivated. The average person when asked how to motivate someone will tell you what†¦show more content†¦* Discuss ways to empower staff. * Consider training and/or development needs of staff and work out for them corresponding training and development plans to raise the capability of staff for performance improvement. Organizations and Managers also have a responsibility to enhance the environment for their staff members. Per Herzberg’s Two-Factor and McClelland’s Theory staff should enjoy quality management by leaders who are not afraid of delegating decisions and sharing the accomplishments. Affording staff fair pay, organizational policies which they can aspire to, positive relationship with colleagues and a sense of job security, are the roles of the manager and the organization. Their employment should provide career advancement through promotion and personal growth, as well as a chance for an input in the behavior of others, appreciation, responsibility and achievement. Motivation in many ways is the key to success of many organizations. It is one of the most difficult tasks that a manager faces because everyone is different. The methods that are used to motivate employees must be tailored to fit each one. With multi cultural staff and organizational globalization these cannot be applied in isolation. Staffs are motivated in differing manners by their perception ofShow MoreRelatedThe Planning Control Link : The Basic Function Of Management Essay995 Words   |  4 Pagesactions for achievement of pre-determined goals. 1)Goals- ïÆ'Ëœ Planning requires a systematic approach. Planning starts with the setting of goals Setting of goals by which it means to work for the vision of the organisation to set a goal for which the plan is to be laid 2)objectives- Planning requires a systematic approach. ïÆ'Ëœ Planning starts with the setting of goals and objectives to be achieved. ïÆ'Ëœ Objectives provide a rationale for undertaking various activities as well as indicate direction of effortsRead MoreStudent Attitudes About The Recreational Services964 Words   |  4 Pagesthose can be driven from this method or the results. 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As Good as It Gets Summary Free Essays

As Good As It Gets, a movie about a man with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), has many interesting aspects to an abnormal psychology student. â€Å"Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder in which people have unwanted and repeated thoughts, feelings, ideas, sensations (obsessions), or behaviors that make them feel driven to do something (compulsions). † (Berger, 2012) There have been several unproven propositions as to what causes OCD including head injuries and infections. We will write a custom essay sample on As Good as It Gets Summary or any similar topic only for you Order Now Those who have obsessive-compulsive disorder have been know to obtain certain signs and symptoms. This including excessive counting, disturbance from germs, excessive validity checking of actions such as turning off the stove, and of course obsessions and compulsions that result in major distress of their life. (Berger) In the movie, As Good As It Gets, Melvin experiences all the above symptoms in addition to many more. Not only did Melvin turn the lock on the door five plus times every time he came in the door, he also flipped the light switch five plus times. As far as Melvin’s fear of germs, he was not at all fond of being touched by anyone and also did not trust to use silverware in restaurants. He would bring packaged plastic ware to use. When Melvin would wash his hands, he would use only hot water and only use a bar of soap for about 5 to 10 seconds. He would then throw the bar of soap away and retrieve a new one from his overly stocked medicine cabinet. His home was untouchably organized and he for the majority of the movie he wouldn’t allow anyone other than himself to enter his home. Melvin did not take being interrupted lightly, especially while working. He has no tolerance for people and didn’t hide that aspect in any way. He said what was on his mind without hesitation or worry of upsetting anyone or hurting his or her feelings. Melvin ate at the same restaurant at the same time every day. He would then sit at the exact same table and demand to have the same waitress. If someone happened to be sitting at â€Å"his† table, he would, without a second thought, speak rudely to them until they left. He would position his plastic ware very specifically and had no patience towards the restaurant employees. Some other obsessions/compulsions Melvin faced were that he avoided stepping on any cracks in his path including brick walkways and also while putting on his shoes he would tap each side of his shoes with each foot before putting them on. It’s hard to say how Melvin â€Å"dealt with† his disorder. It was clear that he avoided socializing with those around him assuming because he did not want them to throw off his routine of interfere with his life and how he lived it. It could be that this is how he dealt with OCD. Another possibility is that he simply followed his day-to-day routine to avoid change and that’s what made his life easier. In fact, this is a major possibility as Melvin was receiving therapy but could not remain persistent in his appointments due to the fact that his therapy appointments messed up his daily routine. Melvin seemed to get by on the simple aspect of seeing his waitress everyday at the restaurant. Towards the end of the movie when Melvin had other people in his apartment it seemed to have set something off in him that caused him to act differently. An example being: when he forgot to lock the door when he brought someone else into his apartment. When he went to leave his apartment and noticed he had forgotten to lock the door, he was shocked. OCD has been linked biologically to â€Å"abnormal functioning by specific regions of the brain. † (Comer, 2013) The orbitofrontal cortex and the caudate nuclei are part of a brain circuit that takes sensory information beginning in the orbitofrontal cortex and where simple impulses derive and those impulses are sent to the caudate nuclei where they are filtered by importance (based on how powerful the impulse is). If the impulses seem to be â€Å"important† they are sent to the thalamus to be acted upon. (Comer) It is obvious that if the filter (the caudate nuclei) is not functioning properly then unnecessary impulses will be sent to the thalamus for further thinking and unnecessary actions will be made. Some antidepressant medications that increase serotonin activity have been found to improve cases of OCD. (Comer) People who develop OCD have been known to blame themselves for their compulsions, obsessions, and antagonizing thoughts. They have anxiety caused by thinking something bad will happen if they don’t perform these actions. People with OCD also experience depression brought on by the constant thoughts and needing perfection. One form of treatment for this cognitive problem would be to attempt to neutralize the thoughts. Neutralizing is â€Å"a person’s attempt to eliminate unwanted thoughts by thinking or behaving in ways that put matters right internally, making up for the unacceptable thoughts. (Comer) Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a very common anxiety disorder, which causes people to have repetitive unwanted thoughts and actions. It varies in its severity but in most cases it is treatable. The most popular forms and most effective forms of treatment are medication and therapy. There are many theories on causal factors but none to be proven yet. References Berger, F. K. (2012, March 03). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Retrieved from www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov Comer, R. J. (2013). Abnormal psychology. (8th ed. ). New York, NY: Worth Publishers How to cite As Good as It Gets Summary, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Crucible By Arthur Miller Essays (2542 words) -

The Crucible by Arthur Miller The True Devils in Salem In The Crucible by Arthur Miller, the madness of the Salem witch trials is explored in great detail. There are many theories as to why the witch trials came about, the most popular of which is the girls' suppressed childhoods. However, there were other factors as well, such as Abigail Williams' affair with John Proctor, the secret grudges that neighbors held against each other, and the physical and economic differences between the citizens of Salem Village. From a historical viewpoint, it is known that young girls in colonial Massachusetts were given little or no freedom to act like children. They were expected to walk straight, arms by their sides, eyes slightly downcast, and their mouths were to be shut unless otherwise asked to speak. It is not surprising that the girls would find this type of lifestyle very constricting. To rebel against it, they played pranks, such as dancing in the woods, listening to slaves' magic stories and pretending that other villagers were bewitching them. The Crucible starts after the girls in the village have been caught dancing in the woods. As one of them falls sick, rumors start to fly that there is witchcraft going on in the woods, and that the sick girl is bewitched. Once the girls talk to each other, they become more and more frightened of being accused as witches, so Abigail starts accusing others of practicing witchcraft. The other girls all join in so that the blame will not be placed on them. In The Crucible, Abigail starts the accusations by saying, "I go back to Jesus; I kiss his hand. I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the Devil!" Another girl, Betty, continues the cry with, "I saw George Jacobs with the Devil! I saw Goody Howe with the Devil!" >From here on, the accusations grow and grow until the jails overflow with accused witches. It must have given them an incredible sense of power when the whole town of Salem listened to their words and believed each and every accusation. After all, children were to be seen and not heard in Puritan society, and the newfound attention was probably overwhelming. In Act Three of The Crucible, the girls were called before the judges to defend themselves against the claims that they were only acting. To prove their innocence, Abigail led the other girls in a chilling scene. Abby acted as if Mary Warren sent her spirit up to the rafters and began to talk to the spirit. "Oh Mary, this is a black art to change your shape. No, I cannot, I cannot stop my mouth; it's God's work I do." The other girls all stared at the rafters in horror and began to repeat everything they heard. Finally, the girls' hysterics caused Mary Warren to accuse John Proctor of witchcraft. Once the scam started, it was too late to stop, and the snowballing effect of wild accusations soon resulted in the hanging of many innocents. After the wave of accusations began, grudges began to surface in the community. Small slights were made out to be witchcraft, and bad business deals were blamed on witchery. Two characters in The Crucible, Giles Corey and Thomas Putnam, argue early on about a plot of land. Corey claims that he bought it from Goody Nurse but Putnam says he owns it, and Goody Nurse had no right to sell it. Later, when Putnam's daughter accuses George Jacobs of witchery, Corey claims that Putnam only wants Jacobs' land. Giles says, "If Jacobs hangs for a witch he forfeit up his property - that's law! And there is none but Putnam with the coin to buy so great a piece. This man is killing his neighbors for their land!" Others also had hidden motives for accusing their neighbors. Once the accusations began, everyone had a reason to accuse someone else which is why the hangings got so out of hand. The wave of accusations can be likened to mass hysteria, in which the people involved are so caught up that the y start having delusions of neighbors out to